When it comes to interpreting ambiguous contracts, courts follow a set of principles that aim to give effect to the parties` intentions. Ambiguity arises when a contract is open to more than one interpretation, making it difficult to determine the meaning of a particular term or provision.
Courts use several methods to interpret ambiguous contracts. These methods include the plain meaning rule, the contextual approach, and the contra proferentem rule.
The plain meaning rule is the most commonly used method of contract interpretation. It holds that if the contract`s language is unambiguous, the court must give effect to its plain meaning. The court will look at the contract`s words and phrases in their ordinary sense, considering the context in which they are used.
In applying the plain meaning rule, the court may also consider the contract`s structure, purpose, and the parties` intentions. If the contract`s language is ambiguous or unclear, the court may look at the surrounding circumstances to determine the parties` intentions.
The contextual approach involves a broader analysis of the parties` intentions, taking into consideration the contract`s context and surrounding circumstances. The court may look at the parties` course of conduct during the contract`s performance, including their negotiations and prior dealings, to interpret the contract`s ambiguous provisions.
Finally, the contra proferentem rule is a principle that places the burden of ambiguity on the party that drafted the contract. This rule is only applied when all other methods of interpretation have failed to resolve the ambiguity. Under this rule, the contract`s ambiguous provisions are interpreted against the party that drafted them.
In summary, courts use a combination of methods to interpret ambiguous contracts, with the plain meaning rule being the most commonly used. The court`s goal is to give effect to the parties` intentions and resolve the ambiguity in the contract`s language to the extent possible. When all other methods of interpretation have failed, the contra proferentem rule may be applied to interpret the contract`s ambiguous provisions against the party that drafted them. By understanding the principles behind contract interpretation, businesses can better protect their interests and ensure their intentions are reflected in their contracts.